Types of Toilets in India: A Complete Buying Guide

Types of Toilets
Vetted by
SocialBeat , Senior Architect, Delhi
November 07, 2022

While the modern flushable toilet as we know it was first invented in the 16th century, we've come a long way since. Particularly in the last few decades, the types of toilets in India have advanced rapidly, leaving the modern customer spoilt for choice.

If you are a new home buyer or looking to renovate your office, house or any other property, then it's crucial for you to know about the different types of toilets in India so you can make an informed decision on what to choose. This guide is here to help you through the entire process by helping you navigate through different toilet styles, types of toilet flush systems and finding the right modern toilet design ideas to suit your bathroom. Let's dive in!

Chapter 1- Parts of a Modern Toilet Design
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Parts of a Modern Toilet Design

A classic modern toilet design consists of the following parts:

1. Cistern

2. Waste pipe

3. Flush mechanism

4. S-bend/ S-trap

5. Toilet bowl

6. Attachable seat and cover

While these parts of a modern toilet design are common to all types of WC, let's take a look at the different types of toilets in India and how they function.

Different Types of Toilets in India
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Different Types of Toilets in India

The first decision you make when it comes to buying a new toilet is the toilet type. By toilet type, we mean the types of toilet flush systems that are present in the commode. Here are some common toilet flush valve types available:

1. Dual Flush Toilets

2. Double Cyclone Flush

3. Pressure Assisted Toilets

4. Gravity-Flush Toilet

5. Composting Toilets

6. Portable Toilets

7. Electric Toilets

1. Dual flush WC

As the name suggests, these types of toilets have two flush options, a half flush for liquid waste and a full flush for solid waste. Because of this duality, these types of toilets are highly water efficient. These types of toilet flush systems are relatively new and they combine the benefits of gravity feed and pressure-assisted toilets into one.

Best for: Residential spaces, offices and commercial buildings.

Pros: Water efficiency, environmentally friendly

Cons: Can be pricey

2. Gravity Flush WC

Commonly seen in residential spaces, this is one of the oldest types of toilets in India and are extremely popular for their simple mechanism and easy maintenance. Like the name suggests, these types of western toilets use gravity to flush down faster. The mechanism includes a toilet tank that holds water that gets released when the flush is pressed. The force of the water pushes waste through the S-bend trapway and this helps to clean the bowl.

Best for: Residential spaces

Pros: Quiet flushing action, simple maintenance, don't get clogged easily

Cons: Force isn't high, meaning you may not be able to get rid of all waste in one flushing

3. Pressure-Assisted Flush WC

This type of toilet flush system utilises pressurised air to force water into the toilet tank to get rid of all the waste. A system of pressurised air is far more powerful than a gravity-fed toilet, making this toilet a highly efficient alternative that is easy to maintain.

Best for: Commercial/ public spaces, homes with large families 

Pros: Highly water efficient, high force, meaning you almost never need a second flush, does not get clogged easily

Cons: Very noisy, can be expensive

4. Double Cyclone Flush WC

One of the latest options available in the market, double cyclone flush WCs are some of the most water efficient as they use the same power as a full flush without consuming as much water. Instead of holes in the rim of the bowl like a regular toilet (gravity, pressure and dual flushes) this type of toilet flushing system has two nozzles creating a cyclone effect for a more efficient flush altogether.

Best for: Residential spaces, commercial and public spaces

Pros: Water efficient, high force to minimise the need for a second flush

Cons: Not easily available in India, not as water-efficient as dual flush toilets

5. Composting Toilets

As many of us shift to greener living, a new type of toilet is gaining popularity recently and that is the composting toilet. Not only does this toilet flush off the waste, but it also treats the waste by composting it to create compost that can be used as fertilisers. Instead of water, this type of modern toilet uses bulking eco-friendly materials like sawdust, peat moss and wood chips that help remove all the unpleasant odour when the composting is complete. When used properly, composting toilets make great additions to modern bathrooms and are an excellent option for farmhouses and off-the-grid living.

Best for: Farmhouses, RVs (recreational vehicles), homes in remote areas, sustainable homes

Pros: Environmentally friendly, creates natural fertiliser, low ongoing cost and maintenance, requires little/no power

Cons: If not maintained well, you may experience a smell, requires a certain level of manual handling of waste

6. Portable Toilets

As the name suggests, portable toilets are lightweight and can be easily transported around. While they don't have much use in residential spaces, they are ideal for hiking, concerts, events and for camping. They come in prefabricated models with simple parts that are easy to install.

Best for: Hiking, off-the-grid living, camping, remote locations, festivals and concerts.

Pros: Lightweight, reusable, affordable, requires minimal installation

Cons: Meant for temporary use, requires frequent maintenance, may smell if not cleaned regularly

7. Electronic Toilets

One of the most modern innovations in the sanitaryware industry is the revolutionary electronic toilets. Known by many as smart toilets, bidet toilet seats or e-toilet, these latest commode designs work on sensors and have a variety of features like automatic flushing, cleaning, drying and heating based on the model you choose. You can learn more about what a bidet toilet seat is by checking out our blog!

Best for: Residential areas, commercial buildings, office spaces

Pros: Highly advanced, easy to maintain and clean

Cons: Difficult to find, expensive

You can learn more about the features of the bidspa by watching the video below:

Common Toilet Styles in India
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Common Toilet Styles in India

Broadly speaking, there are two main types of toilet styles in India- a squatting pan toilet and a western toilet.

Squat Toilets

Particularly common in Asian countries, you may have heard people refer to the squat toilet as an Indian toilet. We don't see these types of toilets in India as often as they are being phased out in favour of sitting toilets. Squat toilets are usually made of porcelain and the flushing mechanism is the same as most types of western toilets.

Western Toilets

Possibly the most common type of toilet in India today, the western toilet is now available in a variety of toilet styles. These types of toilets in India are made of vitreous china, also known as porcelain as it is water and chemical resistant, easy to clean and maintain, highly durable and hygienic. If maintained well, a classic western toilet can last you a couple of decades as well. Let's discuss some common types of commodes based on their designs.

Types of Commodes

1. One-Piece Toilet

A one-piece toilet is a simple toilet design that is made of a single piece of material. Usually made of ceramic, the one-piece toilet is easy to install and maintain because of the seamless fit between the bowl and flush tank. This type of commode also has minimal risk of leakage but is limited in terms of styles available.

2. Two-Piece Toilet

A two-piece toilet is probably the most commonly seen type of WC in the market. This simple toilet design comes in two pieces- the toilet tank and the bowl that need to be assembled. Because there are two pieces, the tank and the commode are highly customisable. While they can be slightly more difficult to clean, they are long-lasting and the individual pieces can be easily replaced, unlike a single piece. However, these types of toilets are more prone to leaking but there are simple ways for you to fix a leaking toilet.

3. Wall-Hung Toilet

Also known as wall-mounted toilets, these toilets feature a wall-hung toilet bowl while the flush tank is concealed behind the wall with a flush plate placed over it. These types of toilets in India are most commonly seen in commercial buildings and they are a great option for small bathrooms, particularly cubicles because of their small toilet design. Because the flush cistern is concealed, these types of toilets are very easy to clean, but repairing them may be more difficult.

Types of Toilet Flush Systems
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Types of Toilet Flush Systems in India

Choosing the right flush mechanism and toilet flush valve type for your bathroom is an important decision that requires careful consideration. Here are four common flush valve types in the market:

1. Single Flush

A single flush toilet is one with only one flush setting. When you press down on the flush, the same pressure and amount of water are released every time. These types of flushes are the most common in households, making them available in a wide range of styles.

2. Double Flush

As the name suggests, double flushes have two flush modes, a half flush for lesser pressure and water and a full flush. Because of the two options available, this flush valve type is far more water efficient and can help you save on your water bills.

3. Automatic Flush

Automatic flushes work on sensors and do not require any button to press. A simple wave of the hand triggers the flush which carries out the flush. Because it is activated by sensors, this type of toilet flush system does not allow you to half flush. They are most commonly seen in public toilets and are some of the most hygienic solutions for your bathroom.

4. Flushometer

The flushometer valve mechanism is a type of flush that is best suited for tankless or wall-hung toilets. These types of flushes have an industrial look and are excellent toilet design ideas for commercial spaces because of their powerful mechanism and functionality.

Considerations before Choosing Your Toilet
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Considerations before Choosing Your Toilet 

Now that we come to the end of our guide on choosing the right type of toilet, it's time to discuss what to keep in mind before beginning. Here are a few steps to help start your journey-

Size of Bathroom: Before choosing your WC parts, take a hard look at your bathrooms and keep in mind the dimensions of the space. This will help you decide the size of the toilet you want to install.;

Bathroom Style: If your bathroom follows a defined interior style, then you may want to keep that in mind while choosing your WC as well. As a modern bathroom idea, you can even opt for coloured toilets to match your bathroom aesthetics better.

Budget: Finally, the most important consideration before choosing your dream WC is your budget. Toilets have a vast range based on the features and functions you want. Hence, keep an estimated budget in mind before you begin your journey.

Once you have all their considerations in mind, it's time to start carefully planning what your dream bathroom looks like. Amongst all the types of toilets in India, mentioned above, which one are you going to choose?

Looking to install a WC soon? Learn more about wall-hung toilet installation today with this detailed video:

For more information and details on toilet installation, you can get in touch with Jaquar for a virtual consultation today! 

Frequently Asked Questions on Types of Toilets in India

Before buying a toilet, we strongly recommend understanding your requirements based on the size and design of your bathroom and budget. We also recommend learning about different types of toilets in India before making your purchase. 

Both, single-piece toilets and two-piece toilets have their pros and cons. Single-piece toilets are heavier in nature with limited styles but they tend to be easy to maintain with minimal leaks. Two-piece toilets are far more customizable but they are prone to more leaks. Choosing the right style depends on your needs for your bathroom. 

If you have a small bathroom, then you should opt for small toilet designs that help you maximise the space in your bathroom. Consider a concealed flush tank to maximise the usable space and keep the entire space appear clean and clutter-free.

When it comes to flushes, there are three things to consider- efficiency, cost and power. Dual flush toilets are the best because they are reasonably affordable, they help you save water with their toilet flush mechanism by allowing you two flush modes and don't make much noise.

There are three main types of flushing systems including pressure assisted, gravity-based, double cyclone and dual flush toilets. Pressure-assisted flushing systems utilise pressured air to flush away the waste along with water. Because of this, they use minimal water compared to other systems and are highly effective. Gravity flushes are some of the most commonly seen flushes that have a simple mechanism of water being pushed down to wash away the waste. These systems are easy to maintain and don't clog easily. Double cyclone flushing systems are a new mechanism that has nozzles at the rim of the bowl to create a cyclone effect with the water. They are also highly water efficient and noise-free.